Mycoplasma turkey venereal disease

Occurrence: Worldwide.
Species affected: Turkeys.
Age affected: Mainly breeders, poults and young can also become affected.
Causes: Mycoplasma meleagridis, M. iners. Spread by mating via semen; transovarian route to progeny; and laterally among poults by aerosol.
Effects: Signs include high embryonic mortality, stunted growth, air sacculitis and lameness. Hock joint swelling, deformation of cervical vertebrae and feather deformities may occur.

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Causes

It spreads through  artificial insemination of turkeys  with contaminated  semen. Breeders are susceptible to this chronic disease, often subclinically and pass organism to poults, which show lameness and feather deformities. The agents involved in the aetiology of this disease include –I- M. meleagridis and M. iowae.

Mode of transmission

Spread by mating via semen or transovarian to progeny and laterally among poults by aerosol.

Clinical signs

Signs include high embryonic mortality, stunted growth, air sacculitis, and lameness (bowing and twisting of legs and shortening of the tarseometatarsal bone). Hock joint swelling, deformation of cervical vertebrae, and feather deformities may occur.

Postmortem lesions

Lesions include skeletal deformities especially of the neck and legs and air sacculitis.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is by serology (ELISA or HI test) and/or isolation of organism from lesions. It simulates other mycoplasma infections and nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention

Prevention is by dipping eggs in tylan or heating eggs to kill mycoplasma in small hatcheries. Depopulate infected breeders, hatch only MM or MI clean flocks and/or inject poults or eggs with antibiotics and/or treat in the feed or water.

Treatment

Medications  include  Tylosin  or  LS-50®  in  water,  quinolones,  gentamycin,  nalidixic acid, tiamulin, or spiramycin.