Staphylococcosis

Occurrence: Worldwide were birds are reared on built up litter
Species affected: All.
Age affected: All.
Causes: Staphylococcus aureus is a gram‑positive coccoid‑shaped, ubiquitous organism and is found in clusters.
Effects: Signs include down on hocks, swollen feet (bumblefoot) or hocks, high mortality
in baby chicks (omphalitis), and gangrenous dermatitis. Limits growth rate ini young birds
and reproduction in adults.

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Detailed information

Chronic debilitating disease of all age birds due to birds being in contact with wet litter and from amoni burs, and cuts and srctedh, which bcowm infected with bacteria.

Mode of transmission

Transmission modes include transovarian, soiled eggs, secondary infection through wound, contaminated hatchery, and wet litter, which cause ammonia burns. Staph readily contaminates burnt skin.

Clinical signs

Signs include down on hocks, swollen feet (bumblefoot) or hocks, high mortality in baby chicks (omphalitis), and gangrenous dermatitis. Morbidity and mortality are low with this disease.

Postmortem lesions

Lesions may include exudate on heart, liver, and yolk in chicks, puss in joints, breast blister, and foot pad in older birds (bumblefoot). Osteomyelitis (focal yellow areas of caseous exudate in the bones) and septicemia (congestion of liver, spleen, kidney and lungs) may occur.

Staphylococcosis

Diagnosis

Laboratory isolation of coagulase positive organisms. Staph isolation on blood agar produces white to orange smooth colonies. Type bacteria using phages (bacterial virus). It simulates Mycoplasma synoviae, viral tenosynovitis, Salmonella, E. coli, Pasteurella, and Streptococcus. Swollen, localized abscesses are characteristic for this disease.

Prevention

Fumigate eggs and incubator, remove sharp objects from house, use clean dry litter, and use nipple‑drinkers for a dryer house to reduce the bacteria.   Pro and prebiotics given by feed or water at any early age of life.

Treatment

A number of antibiotics in the feed or water are effective.